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Group 2 Step 1 A Study the text below and consider the following questions. 1 Is it easy or difficult for animals to adapt to the changing environment? Why? 2 Why has a slight temperature rise put the polar bear at risk of extinction? 3 How can global warming affect animals living in a warm climate?
Everyone feels that home is the best place in the world. It is a spot where we are safe and familiar with the surroundings. We know where the fridge is -- in case we get hungry, or where warm clothes are kept -- in case we feel chilly. Amazingly, but animals feel the same. It took them thousands of years to adjust to all the peculiarities of the territory they live in in order to reach harmony with the environment. This is called evolution. And it comes to them as a shock when some parameters of their environment change too rapidly. Evolution is a slow process. Global warming is changing the environment and lots of species are facing very serious problems. In response to environmental changes some of them move, some reduce their population, and others become irreversibly extinct. For instance, scientists say that temperature rise of about one degree has already put the polar bear at risk of extinction, which may happen during the current century. Normally, polar bears spend most of their time hunting for seals on sea ice. But sea ice is melting. As the result bears don't have enough food to gain their fat supply, which is dangerous for themselves and for their cubs. Newborn little bears are weaker than years ago and poor feeding contributes to that problem. Hunting is getting more and more difficult and even life threatening for polar bears. Now and again researchers in the Arctic region find a considerable number of dead bears which just float in the sea. The cause of their death is drowning. In spite of the fact that polar bears are strong animals and can swim quite well, they are not very good at swimming long distances and at diving. While hunting they prefer swimming among ice floes -- large drifting blocks of ice, which are a sort of safety islands for them. When, due to a warmer climate, the water is ice free, they don't have an opportunity to hunt seals jumping from one ice floe to another. They have to hunt in the water, which is less successful and very risky.
Unfortunately, not only cold lands animals are suffering from global warming. In the warm waters of the Indian Ocean corals are dying too. Coral communities are also affected by temperature rise, which accelerates the destruction, and slows down the recovery process. The process of destruction is already visible -- the corals are bleaching, i.e. they are losing their colours. Losing colour happens mainly due to lack of oxygen, as when water gets warmer it contains less oxygen. Another factor, but unfortunately not the last one, is the warmth shock for some of coral reef inhabitants. Corals provide shelter for lots of marine life, and they often exist on symbiosis basis. For this reason the destruction of tiny marine organisms may lead to the death of corals.
Scientists say that corals are really under serious threat and can die within a hundred years. If they are destroyed, it will inevitably bring some fish species which use corals as nurseries for their little ones to extinction, and then, unavoidably, some birds and marine animals will be affected. According to the most tragic scenarios, as much as forty percent of the currently existing animals can become extinct.
? Read the text once again and choose between the two conclusions.
a) If people help animals adapt to the changing environment, the animals can possibly survive through difficult times and will even benefit from a warmer climate.
b) Wildlife is not able to evolve rapidly, that's why most of the existing species are under a very serious threat.
Give some other examples on how human activity contributes to global warming / environment pollution. Use some local examples if possible. Write about: what kind of activity it is (farming / construction / making water reservoirs, transportation / manufacturing, etc) where it takes place if it can affect animals' and birds' populations and if it can bring some species to extinction
Find out how people feel about the global warming effect on wild animals and birds. Conduct a survey using the questionnaire below. Take the following steps: 1 Ask 6-10 people of any age to fill in the questionnaire form. 2 Analyse the responses. 3 Write a report on the results (see the layout below). Use statistics to support your statements.
Questions/Answers 1 Do you believe global warming is a threat to animals? Yes No. I don't know. I don't care 2 Do you believe that global warming will bring a considerable number of species to extinction? Yes No. I don't know. I don't care.
3 Do you believe that global warming will upset natural wildlife balance? Yes No. I don't know. I don't care.
4 Do you think it may happen during your lifetime? Yes No. I don't know. I don't care.
5 Do you think people need to do something to stop or to slow down the process of global warming? Yes No. I don't know. I don't care.
6 What should people do to improve the situation? Tick the options or / and suggest something yourself.
consume less energy reduce carbon hydrogen emission develop new clean technologies lessen the pollution
7 What should every person do? Tick the options or / and suggest something yourself.
travel by air less use public transport instead of a car avoid buying high-powered cars if not necessary, buy smaller cars avoid using plastic packaging if not necessary sort one's waste and carry it to the recycling centres pay more for environment friendly products
8 What are you, personally, ready to do to improve the situation? Tick the options or / and suggest something yourself. travel by air less use public transport instead of a car avoid buying high-powered cars if not necessary, buy smaller cars avoid using plastic packaging if not necessary sort your waste and carry it to the recycling centres pay more for environment friendly products
Report on the results of the survey
Use the questions as guidelines for your report.
Who took part in the survey? Are people aware of the problem? Do people care and believe that some measures need to be taken? Are they ready to do something themselves? Do you think people want and are able to do something to slow down global warming or not?
To collect the data about / to find out if people are aware of the problem, we conducted a survey. .. .people took part in the survey their ages range from... to... The analysis of the results proves that most / almost half/ very few people... Only two people out of ten... A very small percent, only ten percent of the total, think that... In contrast, younger respondents say that... We've studied the results and have come to the conclusion that...
Read through all the information you've got and decide if it confirms the hypothesis or not. Make up a presentation of your web-site according to the plan. It'll be a patchwork. • Your hypothesis: confirmed or rejected. • Some evidence (local or global) to prove that global warming, if not stopped, will deeply affect the wildlife of the Earth. • Results of the research on how people around you feel about the problem. • Your conclusion.